Coffee consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and total mortality: Does the brewing method matter?
Title：Coffee consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and total mortality: Does the brewing method matter?
Author： Aage Tverdal, Randi Selmer, Jacqueline M Cohen, et al.
Abstract：Aim The aim of this study was to investigate whether the coffee brewing method is associated with any death and cardiovascular mortality, beyond the contribution from major cardiovascular risk factors. Methods and results Altogether, 508,747 men and women aged 20–79 participating in Norwegian cardiovascular surveys were followed for an average of 20 years with respect to cause-specific death. The number of deaths was 46,341 for any cause, 12,621 for cardiovascular disease (CVD), 6202 for ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 2894 for stroke. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for any death for men with no coffee consumption as reference were 0.85 (082–0.90) for filtered brew, 0.84 (0.79–0.89) for both brews, and 0.96 (0.91–1.01) for unfiltered brew. For women, the corresponding figures were 0.85 (0.81–0.90), 0.79 (0.73–0.85), and 0.91 (0.86–0.96) for filtered, both brews, and unfiltered brew, respectively. For CVD, the figures were 0.88 (0.81–0.96), 0.93 (0.83–1.04), and 0.97 (0.89–1.07) in men, and 0.80 (0.71–0.89), 0.72 (0.61–0.85), and 0.83 (0.74–0.93) in women. Stratification by age raised the HRs for ages ≥60 years. The HR for CVD between unfiltered brew and no coffee was 1.19 (1.00–1.41) for men and 0.98 (0.82–1.15) for women in this age group. The HRs for CVD and IHD were raised when omitting total cholesterol from the model, and most pronounced in those drinking ≥9 of unfiltered coffee, per day where they were raised by 9% for IHD mortality. Conclusion Unfiltered brew was associated with higher mortality than filtered brew, and filtered brew was associated with lower mortality than no coffee consumption. Keywords Ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, unfiltered brew, filtered brew