Efficient degradation of Malachite Green by Aeromonas sp. strain DH-6

VIEWS - 656 (Abstract) 124 (PDF)
Lin-Na Du, Ke-Ke Pan, Gang Li, Yu-Yi Yang, Fang-Cheng Xu


Microbial decolorization has been investigated extensively. Various microbes have been studied for their dye removing capability; however, microbial decolorizer with a strong environmental adaptability and wide substrate spectrum is of great potential for its possible practical application. Therefore, in this study, Aeromonas sp. DH-6, a wide dye spectrum decolorizer, was investigated in terms of its use for Malachite Green (MG) remediation. Results indicated that most of carbon sources have no effect on decolorization, while the nitrogen sources of beef extract and yeast extract could enhance MG decolorization significantly. Among the tested metal ions, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ could significantly inhibit decolorization. Moreover, the strain showed a very stable and efficient decolorization performance in the pH of 5.0-10.0 and at 20-40oC. Besides, it could almost completely decolorize MG at concentrations ≤ 1000 mg/L within 36 h. Based on UV-visible, GC-MS, and FTIR analysis, biodegradation of MG by the strain DH-6 was confirmed and data showed that MG was decomposed into 4-(Dimethylamino)benzophenone and other metabolites containing –C=O, –NH, and –OH groups. Enzyme analysis showed that tyrosinase, laccase, LiP, NADH-DCIP reductase, and MG reductase might be involved in MG degradation by the strain DH-6. Overall, the results demonstrated that the strain DH-6 will have an effective use as an alternative in MG bioremediation.


biodegradation, triphenylmethane dye, Aeromonas sp., operational parameters, degradation products, enzymes

Full Text:



Sarkar A K, Pal A, Ghorai S, et al. 2014, Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid). Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.111: 108-115.

Sayğılı H and Güzel F, 2018, Usability of activated carbon with well-developed mesoporous structure for the decontamination of malachite green from aquatic environments: kinetic, equilibrium and regeneration studies. Journal of Porous Materials, vol.25:477-488.

Yang X T, Zheng J Z, Lu Y M, et al. 2016, Degradation and detoxification of the triphenylmethane dye malachite green catalyzed by crude manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus F17. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.23:9585-9597.

Helaïli N, Boudjamaa A, Kebir M, et al. 2017, Efficient photo–catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo–catalyst. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.24:6481-6491.

Yan J P, Niu J Z, Chen D D, et al. 2014, Screening of Trametes strains for efficient decolorization of malachite green at high temperatures and ionic concentrations. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.87:109-115.

Hajnajafi M, Khorshidi A, Gilani A G, et al. 2018, Catalytic degradation of malachite green in aqueous solution by porous manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanorods. Research on Chemical Intermediates, vol.44 (5):3313-3323.

Jasińska A, Paraszkiewicz K, Sip A, et al. 2015, Malachite green decolorization by the filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum–Mechanistic study and process optimization. Bioresource Technology, vol.194:43-48.

Wu J Z, Feng Y X, Shao Y B, et al. 2018, Novel SiQDs–MoS2 heterostructures with increasing solar absorption for the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green. Journal of Materials Science, vol.53(11): 8120-8131.

Raval N P, Shah P U and Shah N K, 2017, Malachite green ‘‘a cationic dye’’ and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption. Applied Water Science, vol.7:3407-3445.

Meena S, Vaya D and Das B K, 2016, Photocatalytic degradation of Malachite Green dye by modified ZnO nanomaterial. Bulletin of Materials Science, vol.39(7): 1735-1743.

Nidheesh P V, Gandhimathi R and Ramesh S T, 2013, Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.20:2099-2132.

Du L N, Wang S, Li G, et al. 2011, Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity. Ecotoxicology, vol.20:438-446.

Tao Y B, Wang F, Meng L J, et al. 2017, Biological decolorization and degradation of Malachite Green by Pseudomonas sp. YB2: process optimization and biodegradation pathway. Current Microbiology, vol.74:1210-1215.

Vijayalakshmidevi S R and Muthukumar K, 2014, Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.30:429-437.

Wang J A, Qiao M, Wei K B, et al. 2011, Decolorizing activity of Malachite Green and its mechanisms involved in dye biodegradation by Achromobacter xylosoxidans MG1. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.20:220-227.

Lv G Y, Cheng J H, Chen X Y, et al. 2013, Biological decolorization of malachite green by Deinococcus radiodurans R1. Bioresource Technology, vol.144:275-280.

Du L N, Zhao M, Li G, et al. 2012, Highly efficient decolorization of malachite green by a novel Micrococcus sp. strain BD15. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.19:2898-2907.

Khan R, Bhawana P and Fulekar M H, 2013, Microbial decolorization and degradation of synthetic dyes: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, vol.12:75-97.

Chen S H and Ting A S Y, 2015, Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost. Journal of Environmental Management, vol.150:274-280.

Jasińska A, Różalska S, Bernat P, et al. 2012, Malachite green decolorization by non-basidiomycete filamentous fungi of Penicillium pinophilum and Myrothecium roridum. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.73:33-40.

Jung J, Seo H, Lee S H, et al. 2013, The effect of toxic malachite green on the bacterial community in Antarctic soil and the physiology of malachite green-degrading Pseudomonas sp. MGO. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.97:4511-4521.

Chen C Y, Kuo J T, Cheng C Y, et al. 2009, Biological decolorization of dye solution containing malachite green by Pandoraea pulmonicola YC32 using a batch and continuous system. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.172:1439-1445.

Radha K V, Regupathi I, Arunagiri A, et al. 2005, Decolorization studies of synthetic dyes using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and their kinetics. Process

Biochemistry, vol.40:3337-3345.

Wu J G, 1994, Modern Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and its application. Scientific and technical documentation press, 573-648.

Saravanakumar K and Kathiresan K, 2014, Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp. SpringerPlus, vol.3:631.

Chaturvedi V and Verma P, 2015, Biodegradation of malachite green by a novel copper-tolerant Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 isolated from copper mine waste water. Bioresources and Bioprocessing, vol.2:42.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26789/AEB.2018.02.005


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Lin-Na Du, Ke-Ke Pan, Gang Li, Yu-Yi Yang, Fang-Cheng Xu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.