On Applied Toxicology

VIEWS - 320 (Abstract) 164 (PDF)
Ji-Dong Gu


Analytical chemistry allows an accurate quantification of the total concentrations of a range of chemicals in different media of the ecosystems and contaminated sites, but the numerical values do not have direct relevance to the toxicity of them because the measured concentrations do not represent the active fraction that imposes toxic effects on organisms. It is apparent that an assessment of pollutant concentrations in ecosystems shall be made with new innovation to obtain the organism exposed concentrations so that the subsequent toxicological effects based on these data can provide reliable estimate on toxicity for management decision accordingly. Applied Toxicology, e.g., Ecotoxicology, and Environmental Toxicology, therefore shall have a different scientific framework to adopt the use of a new concentration term for pollutants to establish a close relationship between the effective concentration in the ecosystem and the toxicity to the organisms to make a meaningful understanding of the ecotoxicology and environmental toxicity. In addition, the choice of the organisms as indicators for chemical toxicity assays is another critical issue and the organism shall be selected with an international consensus to establish a solid baseline for comparable results from different laboratories around the world. Doing this way, the Applied Toxicology can make great advancement and contributes to the society better on a more competitive level based on exact science similar to physical sciences today. A greater opportunity is ahead and effective action needs to be taken collectively and immediately to advance the new knowledge of this research subject.


Toxicity; environmental toxicology; ecotoxicology; metals; persistent organic pollutants

Full Text:



Alexander, M., 1999. Biodegradation and Bioremediation (2nd ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Amann, R. I., Ludwig, W. and Schleifer, K.H., 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev, 59(1), 143-169.

Bitton, G. and Dutka B.J., 1986. Toxicity testing using microorganisms. Vol. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Cairns, J., 1983. Are single species toxicity tests alone adequate for estimating environmental hazard? Hydrobiology 100: 47-57.

Cao, H., Auguet, J.C., and Gu, J.D., 2013. Global ecological pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. PLoS ONE, 8.

Cheung, K.H. and Gu, J.D., 2007. Mechanisms of hexavalent chromium detoxification by bacteria and bioremediation applications. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 59: 8-15.

Dixon, J.B. and Weed, S.B., 1977. Minerals in soil environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. 948 pp

Dutka, B.J. and Bitton, G., 1986. Toxicity testing using microorganisms. Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Gu, J.D., 2014. Assessment of ecosystem health and ecotoxicology through chemical analysis and modeling. Ecotoxicology 23 (4): 475-479.

Gu, J.D., 2016. Biodegradation testing: so many tests but very little new innovation. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 1(1): 92-95.

Gu, J.D., 2018. Bioremediation of toxic metals and metalloids for cleaning up from soils and sediments. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 3(2): 48-51.

Gu, J.D., and Wang, Y., 2013. A new era for geomicrobial ecotoxicology in environmental science research. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 85: 345-346.

Gu, J.D., and Wang, Y., 2014. Geomicrobial Ecotoxicology as a new subject in environmental sciences is proposed. Ecotoxicology 23 (10): 1823-1825.

Han, P., and Gu, J.D., 2015. Further analysis of anammox bacterial community structures along an anthropogenic nitrogen-input gradient from the riparian sediments of the Pearl River Delta to the deep-ocean sediments of the South China Sea. Geomicrobiology Journal 32 (9): 789-798.

Mayfield, C.I. 1993. Microbial systems. pp. 9-27. In: P. Calow (ed.), Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Vol. I, Blackwell, Londo

Scharzenbach, R.P., B.I. Escher, K. Fenner, T.B. Hofstetter, C.A. Johnson, U. von Gunten and B. Wehrli, 2006. The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science 313: 1072-1077.

Stotzky, G., 1986. Influence of soil mineral colloids on metabolic processes, growth, adhesion, and ecology of microbes and viruses. Pp. 305-428. In P.M. Huang and M. Schnitzer, eds. Interactions of Soil Minerals with natural Organics and Microbes. SSSA Special Publication No. 17. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WI

Stumm, W. and Morgan J.J., 1996. Aquatic chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. (3rd ed.), Wiley, New York. pp. 1022.

Whitman, W.B., Coleman, D.C. and Wiebe W.J.,1998. Prokaryotes: The unseen majority. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 6578-6583.

Yu X.Z. and Gu J.D., 2006. Uptake, metabolism and toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in weeping willows. J Hazard Mater 137:1417-1423

Yu X.Z. and Gu J.D., 2007a. Accumulation and distribution of trivalent chromium and effects on hybrid willow (Salix matsudana Koidz × alba L.) metabolism. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:503-511

Yu X.Z. and Gu J.D., 2007b. Metabolic responses of weeping willows to selenate and selenite. Env Sci Pollut Res 14:510-517

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26789/AEB.2019.02.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ji-Dong Gu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.