Chemical forms of chromium in rice plants: does this fraction determine its phytotoxicity?

VIEWS - 464 (Abstract) 137 (PDF)
Xiao-Zhang Yu, Chun-Jiao Lu, Yu-Xi Feng


Chemical forms of chromium (Cr) in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. BX139) exposed to either potassium chromate Cr(VI) or chromium nitrate Cr(III) were clarified using a hydroponic study. Seven chemical fractions of Cr in different rice tissues were extracted using a sequential extraction method. Results indicated that exposures to both Cr valents resulted in significant accumulation of Cr in rice tissues and Cr(III) was more bioavailable for rice seedlings than Cr(VI). However, Cr chemical forms were inconsistent in both plant materials (root/shoots) as well as in two different Cr variants. Although both Cr variants caused dose-dependent inhibition on relative growth rates of rice seedlings, different inhibition mechanisms most likely exited using a partial correlation analysis. Both fractions of Cr in cell wall and in intracellular location in roots significantly inhibited the relative growth rates of rice seedlings exposed to Cr(VI), while inhibition of the relative growth rate of rice seedlings exposed to Cr(III) was largely stemmed from Cr partition in intracellular fraction in shoots.


chromium; cell wall; intracellular fraction; relative growth rate; rice seedlings

Full Text:



Aryal, R., Nirola R., Beecham, S., and Sarkar, B., 2016. Influence of heavy metals in root chemistry of Cyperus vaginatus R.Br: A study through optical spectroscopy. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 113, 201-207.

Cobbett, C., 2003. Heavy metals and plants-model systems and hyperaccumulators. New Phytologist, 159(2), 289–293.


Ebbs, S.D., Piccinin, R.C., Goodger, J.Q.D., Kolev, S.D., Woodrow, I.E. and Baker, A.J.M., 2008. Transport of ferrocyanide by two eucalypt species and sorghum. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10(4), 343–357.

Fu, X., Dou, C., Chen, Y., Chen, X., Shi, J., Yu, M., and Xu, J., 2011. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Phytolacca americana L. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(1), 103–107.

Lai, H.Y., 2015. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana in relation to its phytoextraction potential. Chemosphere, 138, 370–376.

Li, C.C., Dang, F., Cang, L., Zhou, C.F., and Zhou, D.M., 2014. Integration of metal chemical forms and subcellular partitioning to understand metal toxicity in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars. Plant Soil, 384(1-2), 201–212.

Ren, J.H., Ma, L.Q., Sun, H.J., Cai, F., and Luo, J., 2014. Antimony uptake, translocation and speciation in rice plants exposed to antimonite and antimonate. Science of the Total Environment, 475(15), 83–89.

Sharma, S.S., and Dietz, K.J., 2008.The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends in Plant Science, 14(1), 43–50.

Sousa, A.I., Cacador, I., Lillebo, A.I., and Pardal, M.A., 2008. Heavy metal accumulation in Haliminoe portulacoides: Intra- and extra-cellular metal binding sites. Chemosphere, 70(5), 850-857.

Wang, X., Liu, Y.G., Zeng, G.M., Chai, L.Y., Song, X.C., Min, Z.Y., and Xiao, X., 2008. Sub-cellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Bechmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Environmental & Experimental Botany, 62(3), 389–395.

Weng, B., Xie, X., Weiss, D.J., Liu, J., Lu, H., and Yan, C., 2012. Kadelia obovata (S., L.) Yong tolerance mechanisms to Cadmium: subcellular distribution, chemical forms and thiol pools. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(11), 2453-2460.

Wu, F.B., Dong, .J, Qian, Q.Q., and Zhang, G.P., 2005. Subcellular distribution and chemical form of Cd and Cd-Zn interaction in different barley genotypes. Chemosphere, 60(10),1437–1446.

Yu, X.Z., Feng, Y.X., and Liang, Y.P., 2016. Kinetics of phyto-accumulation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in rice seedlings. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 128(3), 72-77.

Yu, X.Z. and Feng, X.H., 2016. Effects of trivalent chromium on biomass growth, water use efficiency and distribution of nutrient elements in rice seedlings. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 1(1), 64-70.

Yu, X.Z., Lin, Y.J., Fan, W.J., and Lu, M.R., 2017. The role of exogenous proline in amelioration of lipid peroxidation in rice seedlings exposed to Cr(VI). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 123, 106–112.

Yu, X.Z., and Zhang, F.F., 2017. Distribution of phenolic compounds in rice seedlings under Cr exposure. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 2(1), 28–35.

Xu, P.X., and Wang, Z.L., 2013. Physiological mechanism of hypertolerance of cadmium in Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue: Chemical forms and tissue distribution. Environmental & Experimental Botany, 96, 35–42.

Zhang, W., Lin, K., Zhou, J., Zhang, W., Liu, L., and Zhang, Q., 2014. Cadmium accumulation, sub-cellular distribution and chemical forms in rice seedling in the presence of sulfur. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology, 37(1), 348–353.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Xiao-Zhang Yu, Chun-Jiao Lu and Yu-Xi Feng

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.