Biotechnological methods in pulp and paper production from an alternative source of raw materials - the savior of the ecosystem

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Almira Saparbekova, Alina Altekey, Galina Seitmagzimova, Anar Esimova, Darikha Kudasova, Zhuldyz Ibraimova

Abstract


The pulp and paper industry is at its peak due to the annual growth in demand for paper products which includes packaging board, hygienic paper products, printing papers and the list is endless. To date, the main source of raw materials for pulp and paper production is wood. However, its use and the use of standard flow charts in pulp and paper production creates environmental problems. For example, deforestation to obtain raw materials leads to a disruption of biogeocenoses, and technology using alkalis and acids are sources of toxic wastewater that pollute the hydrosphere and lithosphere. In order to avoid the above environmental problems, other options for sustainable sources of raw materials can be considered, such as agricultural waste - straw. By its natural origin, straw is a non-woody plant, which will significantly simplify the flow chart of pulp and paper production, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the use of straw in production will help to reduce the risks of early global warming, since most of the straw is burned in the fields. As far as toxic wastewater emissions are concerned, they can be drastically reduced through the biological degradation of straw lignin to produce pure pulp. Biodegradation of lignin can be produced by widespread wood-destroying fungi due to their ability to synthesize lignin-degrading enzymes. Thus, the use of biological agents in pulp and paper production will make it possible to eliminate the use of caustic acids and alkalis.

Keywords


Biodegradation; Catalysts; Enzymes; Fungi; Lignin; Mediators; Non-waste production; Toxic waste; Wheat straw

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26789/AEB.2023.02.001
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Copyright (c) 2023 Almira Saparbekova, Alina Altekey, Zhanar Aimenova, Zhamila Baimirzaeva, Gulnur Kaldybekova

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