Vol 4, No 1 (2019)

Table of Contents

Research Articles

346 Views, 65 PDF Downloads
Jian-Lan Wang, Wen Gu, Shi-Fa Wang
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.002

Abstract

New N-alkylfurfurylacetamides were synthesized and characterized from abundant biomass derived furfural by a simple and straightforward procedure with overall yields of 51 to 92%. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were then investigated and it was found that N-benzyl-N-furfurylacetamide and N-cyclohexyl-N-furfurylacetamide showed promising activity against bacteria, particularly white-rot-fungi, suggesting a feasible new type of anti-fungal agent in applications to protection and conservation of cultural heritage.


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5-10
313 Views, 75 PDF Downloads
Zomesh Artus Nath Maini, Kiara Marie J. Aribal, Regine Marinelli A. Narag, Jeorgina Kamella Luanshya T. Melad, Juan Angelo D. Frejas, Luis Alfonso M. Arriola, Pia Clarisse Ramos Gulpeo, Ian A. Navarrete, Crisanto M. Lopez
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.004

Abstract

The Lead [Pb(II)] tolerance and uptake ability of four fungal species, two from the genus Penicillium and two from the genus Talaromyces were investigated in this study. The species were isolated from a polluted tributary and identified to be closest to P. canescens, P. simplicissimum, T. macrosporus and another Talaromyces sp. via PCR targeting their internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 sequences. All isolates have tolerances for up to 2000 µg/mL and 3000 µg/mL Pb(II) on solid and liquid medium, respectively. Both Penicillium isolates have increasing removal rates dependent on initial Pb(II) concentration at 500 to 2000 µg/mL, while removal rates of both Talaromyces isolates are not significantly influenced by initial Pb(II) concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake of all isolates increases with increasing Pb(II) concentration but is depressed at 3000 µg/mL, with the exception of T. macrosporus. The recorded total uptake capacities for both Penicillium isolates in this study are higher than in most literature, at 7.0 – 407.4 mg/g and 50.8 – 412.6 mg/g for P. canescens and P. simplicissimum, respectively. The study also reports the exemplary Pb(II) uptake capacities of both Talaromyces isolates at 58.9 – 601.0 mg/g and 60.9 – 402.3 mg/g for T. macrosporus and Talaromyces sp., respectively.


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18-29
277 Views, 92 PDF Downloads
Jie Wei, Shi-Han Gui, Jun-Hua Wu, Dan-Dan Xu, Yun Sun, Xiao-Ying Dong, Yang-Yong Dai, Yong-Feng Li
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.003

Abstract

The depletion of non-renewable resources and pollution of industrial wastewater are major challenges to the human security. Using green renewable resources to address the above problems coincides with the sustainable development of human society. In this study, we attend to design hybrid aerogel, derived from nanocellulose and graphene oxide (GO), to realize wastewater purification via adsorption behavior, benefitting from its high specific surface area and high porosity. Nanocellulose, isolated from Amorpha fruticosa Linn. as a shrub plant, and graphene oxide were combinely employed to prepare the hybird aerogel via freeze-drying process; and its purification ability to remove methylene blue(MB), congo red (CR) and waste oil in waste water was tested. The results indicate that the isolated nanocellulose bears abundant hydroxyl groups and high aspect ratio of ~500 with average diameter of ~30 nm, which is well distributed on the surface of graphene oxide sheet with side length of about 1~3 μm, both of which form the hybrid aerogel with porosity larger than 99%. The nanomaterials physically assemble its orignial aggregation state. When the mass ratio of nanocellulose and graphene oxide is 8 : 2, the hybrid aerogel reaches the highest adsorption capacity of 265.6mg/g and 21.5mg/g for MB and CR, respectively. The hybrid aerogel after hydrophobic treatment shows excellent oil adsorption capacity up to 25.6 g/g, which is beneficial to oil/water separation. This strategy provides potential great-application of the nanocellulose in water purification.

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11-17
186 Views, 47 PDF Downloads
Dongsheng Xue, Shuyang Zhang, Chongju Wang, Chunjie Gong
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.006

Abstract

A novel psychrotroph Cryobacterium sp. GCJ02 was isolated and characterized, which showed gorwth well at 4 ºC. The assembled whole genome of strain GCJ02 is 4.39 Mb, including 4,139 protein coding genes with G+C content of 68.41mol%. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel strain of the genus Cryobacterium, affording feasibility to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cold adaptation, and facilitate genetic manipulation of this bacterium.


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44-48
143 Views, 51 PDF Downloads5 PDF Downloads
Jia Yan, Jie-Hui Xie, Si-Ji Wang, Hong-Guo Zhang, Jia-Peng Wu, Yi-Guo Hong
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.007

Abstract

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) face great challenges in developing countries, such as China, due to increasingly strict integrated wastewater discharge standard, especially for ammonium. Thus, it is very important to understand the limiting factor for ammonium removal in WWTPs. In this study, samples from 8 full-scale municipal WWTPs with different treatment processes in Pearl River Delta (PRD) area were evaluated. Bacterial and archaeal communities were investigated by high-throughput sequencing, activity of aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation, denitrification and anammox processes were evaluated. Nitrite, nitrate and TP concentration were strongly correlated with bacterial and archaeal composition in WWTPs based on canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Aerobic ammonium oxidation activities were over 10 times lower than aerobic nitrite oxidation, denitrification and anammox activities in WWTPs samples, which indicated nitrogen removal activities in WWTPs were limited by aerobic ammonium oxidation, because of lack of nitrite/nitrate for denitrification and anammox. Moreover, a technology-dependent shaping of microbial diversity and nitrogen removal activity was observed. The highest bacterial diversity and nitrogen removal activities were achieved in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and Modified Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (MAAO) processes, which implied the advantage of these two treatment technologies in nitrogen removal. Therefore, this study suggested enhancing activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation might be a potential solution, for promoting ammonium removal and benefiting sustainable management of WWTPs in future.


49-59
100 Views, 21 PDF Downloads
Yi Zhong, Xiao-Tong Li, Qi-Yi Huang, Ren-De Huang, Zi-Yan Zhou, Hua Bi, Peng-Ya Feng, De-Dong Wang
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.008

Abstract

This study aimed to determine mutagen contamination, to compare the differences between inlet and outlet distribution, and the possible impacts on public health. Water samples were collected from four different waterworks in Guangzhou, China. The Ames test was conducted to investigate the potential mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources and peripheral water. Organic content was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents, and toxicity was tested in three doses of extract equivalent, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 L source water. The results of the Ames test showed that all the organic extracts from water samples could induce different levels of mutagenic potentials in the absence of S9 mix, which indicated mutagenicity and strain. Comparing with TA98, TA100 was more sensitive in genotoxicity. Mutagenic enhancement factors were found in both drinking water sources and peripheral water. Water treatment technologies with different disinfection ways could increase the mutagenicity of water, but the biological significance of mutagenicity of the organic extracts remained to be further confirmed. The results suggested that it was necessary to concern the relationship between source water, water treatment unit and the mutagenicity factors of water.

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Biodegradation and Bioremediation

264 Views, 57 PDF Downloads
Xiao Chen, Zi-Tong Ding, Aman khan, Apurva Kakade, Ze Ye, Rong Li, Peng-Ya Feng, Xiang-Kai Li, Pu Liu
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.005

Abstract

At present, the problem of heavy metal pollution is a hot topic in the world. There are significant differences in the types and concentrations of metal ions distributed in each contaminated sites. In China, due to the vast territory and diverse ecoenvironments, the pollution situation is complex and variable, and the composite pollution is particularly obvious. Overall, pollution in the southern provinces is relatively higher than in other provinces, and Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, As and Ni are listed as the priority pollutants for control. The metals have different physical or chemical specificity that allows them to be treated differently. Toxic Cr(VI) needs to be reduced to non-toxic Cr(III) before removal, whereas Cd(II) can form an insoluble Cd compound precipitate under alkaline conditions. Nevertheless, the characteristics of the soil itself such as pH, humidity, mineral composition, etc., are the hurdles in the process of remediation. Therefore, this review systematically summarizes the characteristics of heavy metal contaminated soil in major areas of China. It also proposes appropriate restoration methods and schemes such as phytoremediation and microbial remediation, which provides a theoretical basis for the elimination of heavy metals from a polluted land.


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Commentary

281 Views, 77 PDF Downloads
Ji-Dong Gu
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.001

Abstract

Microorganisms play an important role in cycling of elements of ecosystems, including a wide range of chemical pollutants from anthropogenic origin. These pollutants in ecosystems, particularly aquatic, and sediment and soils, are in different physical and chemical forms in association with the inorganic and organic constituents of the sediment and soils, resulting in variable availability of them to microorganisms for assimilation and transformation. A thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the physical and chemical states of them in the environments requires detailed information of both the bioavailable pollutant concentration and also the metabolic capability of the microorganisms to assess the ecological and environmental toxicity of these pollutants meaningfully. Apart from the primary role as decomposers, microorganisms are qualified to be sensitive indicators for environmental pollution, and ecological health and ecotoxicity of pollutants because of their very short generation time and quickly response to chemical pollutants than higher and large organisms. When used for testing with the same strain, different laboratories can generate high reproducible results to allow comparison of the data feasible, not mention the reduction in cost. Based on the current advances made on genomics analysis and bioinformatics, microbial genomes are easily assembled with the technologies available to providing useful transcriptomic and metabolic annotations, expression and prediction to allow advance toxicological to another level.

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