Vol 4, No 1 (2019)

Table of Contents

Research Articles

538 Views, 379 PDF Downloads
Ying-Chun Huang, Na Wang, Bi-Yong Huang, Chun-Jiao Lu, Xiao-Zhang Yu
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.02.002

Abstract

The base excision repair (BER) pathway is an essential defense mechanism against oxidative damage of DNA in plants. Previous studies have reported that chromium (Cr) exposure causes oxidative stress and DNA damage due to accumulation of ROS. In this study, hydroponic experiments were carried out to investigate mRNA expression of 21 candidate genes involved in the BER pathway in rice seedlings exposed to Cr(III) using qRT-PCR. Changes of H2O2 and O2-• content in rice tissues and the relative growth rate (%) of rice seedlings were also determined. The results indicated that Cr(III) induced dose-dependent inhibition on the relative growth rate of rice seedlings. H2O2 content in roots were significantly increased. Changes of the content of H2O2 and O2-• in shoots was consistent. PCR analysis revealed that responses of selected 21 candidate genes to Cr(III) exposure were tissue specific. The BER pathway in roots was repressed by Cr(III) treatment but activated in shoots in response to Cr(III) exposure, suggesting that the BER pathway would play different roles in regulating and repairing DNA damage caused by Cr(III) exposure in rice.

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30-36
800 Views, 299 PDF Downloads
Zomesh Artus Nath Maini, Kiara Marie J. Aribal, Regine Marinelli A. Narag, Jeorgina Kamella Luanshya T. Melad, Juan Angelo D. Frejas, Luis Alfonso M. Arriola, Pia Clarisse Ramos Gulpeo, Ian A. Navarrete, Crisanto M. Lopez
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.004

Abstract

The Lead [Pb(II)] tolerance and uptake ability of four fungal species, two from the genus Penicillium and two from the genus Talaromyces were investigated in this study. The species were isolated from a polluted tributary and identified to be closest to P. canescens, P. simplicissimum, T. macrosporus and another Talaromyces sp. via PCR targeting their internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 sequences. All isolates have tolerances for up to 2000 µg/mL and 3000 µg/mL Pb(II) on solid and liquid medium, respectively. Both Penicillium isolates have increasing removal rates dependent on initial Pb(II) concentration at 500 to 2000 µg/mL, while removal rates of both Talaromyces isolates are not significantly influenced by initial Pb(II) concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake of all isolates increases with increasing Pb(II) concentration but is depressed at 3000 µg/mL, with the exception of T. macrosporus. The recorded total uptake capacities for both Penicillium isolates in this study are higher than in most literature, at 7.0 – 407.4 mg/g and 50.8 – 412.6 mg/g for P. canescens and P. simplicissimum, respectively. The study also reports the exemplary Pb(II) uptake capacities of both Talaromyces isolates at 58.9 – 601.0 mg/g and 60.9 – 402.3 mg/g for T. macrosporus and Talaromyces sp., respectively.

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18-29
1281 Views, 513 PDF Downloads
Jie Wei, Shi-Han Gui, Jun-Hua Wu, Dan-Dan Xu, Yun Sun, Xiao-Ying Dong, Yang-Yong Dai, Yong-Feng Li
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.003

Abstract

The depletion of non-renewable resources and pollution of industrial wastewater are major challenges to the human security. Using green renewable resources to address the above problems coincides with the sustainable development of human society. In this study, we attend to design hybrid aerogel, derived from nanocellulose and graphene oxide (GO), to realize wastewater purification via adsorption behavior, benefitting from its high specific surface area and high porosity. Nanocellulose, isolated from Amorpha fruticosa Linn. as a shrub plant, and graphene oxide were combinely employed to prepare the hybird aerogel via freeze-drying process; and its purification ability to remove methylene blue(MB), congo red (CR) and waste oil in waste water was tested. The results indicate that the isolated nanocellulose bears abundant hydroxyl groups and high aspect ratio of ~500 with average diameter of ~30 nm, which is well distributed on the surface of graphene oxide sheet with side length of about 1~3 μm, both of which form the hybrid aerogel with porosity larger than 99%. The nanomaterials physically assemble its orignial aggregation state. When the mass ratio of nanocellulose and graphene oxide is 8 : 2, the hybrid aerogel reaches the highest adsorption capacity of 265.6mg/g and 21.5mg/g for MB and CR, respectively. The hybrid aerogel after hydrophobic treatment shows excellent oil adsorption capacity up to 25.6 g/g, which is beneficial to oil/water separation. This strategy provides potential great-application of the nanocellulose in water purification.

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11-17
889 Views, 279 PDF Downloads
Jian-Lan Wang, Wen Gu, Shi-Fa Wang
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.002

Abstract

New N-alkylfurfurylacetamides were synthesized and characterized from abundant biomass derived furfural by a simple and straightforward procedure with overall yields of 51 to 92%. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were then investigated and it was found that N-benzyl-N-furfurylacetamide and N-cyclohexyl-N-furfurylacetamide showed promising activity against bacteria, particularly white-rot-fungi, suggesting a feasible new type of anti-fungal agent in applications to protection and conservation of cultural heritage.

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5-10

Commentary

1056 Views, 309 PDF Downloads
Ji-Dong Gu
DOI:10.26789/AEB.2019.01.001

Abstract

Microorganisms play an important role in cycling of elements of ecosystems, including a wide range of chemical pollutants from anthropogenic origin. These pollutants in ecosystems, particularly aquatic, and sediment and soils, are in different physical and chemical forms in association with the inorganic and organic constituents of the sediment and soils, resulting in variable availability of them to microorganisms for assimilation and transformation. A thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the physical and chemical states of them in the environments requires detailed information of both the bioavailable pollutant concentration and also the metabolic capability of the microorganisms to assess the ecological and environmental toxicity of these pollutants meaningfully. Apart from the primary role as decomposers, microorganisms are qualified to be sensitive indicators for environmental pollution, and ecological health and ecotoxicity of pollutants because of their very short generation time and quickly response to chemical pollutants than higher and large organisms. When used for testing with the same strain, different laboratories can generate high reproducible results to allow comparison of the data feasible, not mention the reduction in cost. Based on the current advances made on genomics analysis and bioinformatics, microbial genomes are easily assembled with the technologies available to providing useful transcriptomic and metabolic annotations, expression and prediction to allow advance toxicological to another level.

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