Biodegradation of Phenol by Bacillus simplex: Characterization and Kinetics Study

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Mohammad A. Alkafaween, Mousa K. Magharbeh, Khaled M Khleifat, Razan Saraireh, Haitham Qaralleh, Tayel El-Hasan, Tayel Hujran, Nabeel Jarrah, Amjad Al-Tarawneh, Salah H. Ajbour, Muhamad O. Al-limoun, Moath Alqaraleh, Hamid A. Nagi Al-Jamal, Malik Amonov

Abstract


Phenol is one of the main pollutants that have a serious impact on the environment and can even be very critical to human health. The biodegradation of phenol can be considered an increasingly important pollution control process. In this study, the degradation of phenol by Bacillus simplex was investigated for the first time under different growth conditions. Six different initial concentrations of phenol were used as the primary substrate. Culture conditions had an important effect on these cells' ability to biodegrade phenol. The best growth of this organism and its highest biodegradation level of phenol were noticed at pH 7, temperature 28 °C, and periods of 36 and 96 h, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the bacterial culture sample revealed that further degradation of the catechol by 1,2-dioxygenase produce a cis, cis-mucconic acid via ortho-pathway and/or by 2,3-dioxygenase into 2-hydroxymucconic semialdehyde via meta-pathway.The highest biodegradation rate was perceived at 700 mg/L initial phenol concentration. Approximately 90% of the phenol (700 mg / L) was removed in less than 96 hours of incubation time. It was found that the Haldane model best fitted the relationship between the specific growth rate and the initial phenol concentration, whereas the phenol biodegradation profiles with time could be adequately described by the modified Gompertz model. The obtained parameters from the Haldane equation are: 1.05 h−1, 9.14 ppm, and 329 ppm for Haldane's maximum specific growth rate, the half-saturation coefficient, and the Haldane’s growth kinetics inhibition coefficient, respectively. The Haldane equation fitted the experimental data by minimizing the sum of squared error (SSR) to 1.36x10-3.

Keywords


Degradation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26789/AEB.2021.02.001
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Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammad A. Alkafaween, Mousa K. Magharbeh, Khaled M Khleifat, Razan Saraireh, Haitham Qaralleh, Tayel El-Hasan, Tayel Hujran, Nabeel Jarrah, Amjad Al-Tarawneh, Salah Jbour, Muhamad O. Al-limoun, Moath Alqaraleh, Hamid A. Nagi Al-Jamal, Malik Amonov

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