Nanocellulose-Graphene Oxide Hybrid Aerogel to Water Purification

VIEWS - 245 (Abstract) 78 (PDF)
Jie Wei, Shi-Han Gui, Jun-Hua Wu, Dan-Dan Xu, Yun Sun, Xiao-Ying Dong, Yang-Yong Dai, Yong-Feng Li


The depletion of non-renewable resources and pollution of industrial wastewater are major challenges to the human security. Using green renewable resources to address the above problems coincides with the sustainable development of human society. In this study, we attend to design hybrid aerogel, derived from nanocellulose and graphene oxide (GO), to realize wastewater purification via adsorption behavior, benefitting from its high specific surface area and high porosity. Nanocellulose, isolated from Amorpha fruticosa Linn. as a shrub plant, and graphene oxide were combinely employed to prepare the hybird aerogel via freeze-drying process; and its purification ability to remove methylene blue(MB), congo red (CR) and waste oil in waste water was tested. The results indicate that the isolated nanocellulose bears abundant hydroxyl groups and high aspect ratio of ~500 with average diameter of ~30 nm, which is well distributed on the surface of graphene oxide sheet with side length of about 1~3 μm, both of which form the hybrid aerogel with porosity larger than 99%. The nanomaterials physically assemble its orignial aggregation state. When the mass ratio of nanocellulose and graphene oxide is 8 : 2, the hybrid aerogel reaches the highest adsorption capacity of 265.6mg/g and 21.5mg/g for MB and CR, respectively. The hybrid aerogel after hydrophobic treatment shows excellent oil adsorption capacity up to 25.6 g/g, which is beneficial to oil/water separation. This strategy provides potential great-application of the nanocellulose in water purification.


Nanocellulose; Graphene Oxide; Hybrid Aerogel; Water Purification; Oil/Water Separation; Adsorption

Full Text:



Albadarin, A.B., Collins, M.N., Naushad, M., Shirazian, S., Walker, G., Mangwandi, C., 2017. Activated lignin–chitosan extruded blends for efficient adsorption of methylene blue. Chemical Engineering Journal, 307, 264-272.

Chen, T., Shi, P., Zhang, J., Li, Y., Duan, T., Dai, L., Wang, L., Yu, X., Zhu, W., 2018. Natural polymer konjac glucomannan mediated assembly of graphene oxide as versatile sponges for water pollution control. Carbohydrate Polymers, 202, 425-433.

Dong, X.Y., Zhuo, X., Wei, J., Zhang, G., Li, Y.F., 2017. Wood-based nanocomposite derived by in-situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9(10), 9070-9078.

Dotto, G.L., Moura, J.M., Cadaval, T.R.S., Pinto, L.A.A., 2013. Application of chitosan films for the removal of food dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 214(4), 8-16.

Geng, B., Wang, H., Wu, S., Ru, J., Tong, C., Chen, Y., Liu, H., Wu, S., Liu, X., 2017. Surface-tailored nanocellulose aerogels with thiol-functional moieties for highly efficient and selective removal of Hg (II) ions from water. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(12), 11715-11726.

Guo, Y., Wang, X., Hu, P., Peng, X., 2016. ZIF-8 coated polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber for highly efficient separation of small dye molecules. Applied Materials Today, 5, 103-110.

Hu, J., Deng., W., Chen, D., 2017. Ceria hollow spheres as an adsorbent for efficient removal of acid dye. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(4), 3570-3582.

Kadam, A.A., Lee, D.S., 2015. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan nanocomposites: Reduction precipitation synthesis, characterization, and application for removal of hazardous textile dyes. Bioresource Technology, 193, 563-567.

Khosravi, M., Azizian, S., 2015. Synthesis of a novel highly oleophilic and highly hydrophobic sponge for rapid oil spill cleanup. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(45), 25326-25333.

Leitch, M.E., Li, C., Ikkala, O., Mauter, M.S., Lowry, G.V., 2016. Bacterial nanocellulose aerogel membranes: novel high-porosity materials for membrane distillation. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 3(3), 85-91.

Lin, R., Li, A., Zheng, T., Lu, L., Cao, Y., 2015. Hydrophobic and flexible cellulose aerogel as an efficient, green and reusable oil sorbent. RSC Advances, 5, 82027-82033.

Mittal, A., Mittal, J., Malviya, A., Kaur, D., Gupta, V.K., 2010. Adsorption of hazardous dye crystal violet from wastewater by waste materials. Journal of Colloid & Interface Science, 343(2), 463-473. of hazardous dye crystal violet from wastewater by waste materials

Nalan, O.S.K., Aslı, C., Tamer, U., Turgay, T., 2015. Microalgae immobilized by nanofibrous web for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(21), 5802-5809.

Namasivayam, C., Kavitha, D., 2002. Removal of congo red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Dyes & Pigments, 54(1), 47-58.

Nematollahzadeh, A., Shojaei, A., Karimi, M., 2015. Chemically modified organic/inorganic nanoporous composite particles for the adsorption of reactive black 5 from aqueous solution. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 86(26), 7-15.

Ngah, W.S.W., Teong, L.C., Hanafiah, M.A.K.M., 2011. Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83(4), 1446-1456.

Phanthong, P., Reubroycharoen, P., Kongparakul, S., Samart, C., Wang, Z., Hao, X., Abudula, A., Guan, G., 2018. Fabrication and evaluation of nanocellulose sponge for oil/water separation. Carbohydrate Polymers, 190, 184-189.

Piccin, J.S., Feris, L.A., Cooper, M., Gutterres, M., 2013. Dye adsorption by leather waste: mechanism diffusion, nature studies, and thermodynamic data. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 58, 873-882.

Punzi, M., Anbalagan, A., Aragão, B.R., Svensson, B.M., Jonstrup, M., Mattiasson, B., 2015. Degradation of a textile azo dye using biological treatment followed by photo-Fenton oxidation: evaluation of toxicity and microbial community structure. Chemical Engineering Journal, 270, 290-299.

Rosales, E., Pazos, M., Sanroman, M., 2011. Comparative efficiencies of the decolourisation of leather dyes by enzymatic and electrochemical treatments. Desalination, 278, 312-317.

Salem, I.A., El-Maazawi, M.S., 2000. Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces. Chemosphere, 41(8), 1173-1180.

Sharma, Y.C., 2010. Optimization of parameters for adsorption of methylene blue on a low-cost activated carbon. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 55(1), 435-439.

Sun, Z., Yao, G., Liu, M., Zheng, S., 2017. In situ synthesis of magnetic MnFe2 O4/diatomite nanocomposite adsorbent and its efficient removal of cationic dyes. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 71, 501-509.

Tsai, C.K., Liao, C.Y., Wang, H.P., Chien, Y.C., Jou, C.J., 2008. Pyrolysis of spill oils adsorbed on zeolites with product oils recycling. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 57(6), 895-898.

Wan, Z., Li, D., Jiao, Y., Ouyang, X., Chang, L., Wang, X., 2017. Bifunctional MoS2 coated melamine-formaldehyde sponges for efficientoil-water separation and water-soluble dye removal. Applied Materials Today, 9, 551-559.

Wei, J., Zhang, G., Dong, J., Wang, H., Guo, Y., Zhuo, X., Li, C., Liang, H., Gu, S., Li, C.H., Dong, X.Y., Li, Y.F., 2018. Facile, Scalable Spray-Coating of Stable Emulsion for Transparent Self-Cleaning Surface of Cellulose-Based Materials. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6 (9), 11335-11344.

Xu, Z., Sun, H., Zhao, X., Gao, C., 2013. Ultrastrong fibers assembled from giant graphene oxide sheets. Advanced Materials, 25(2), 188-193.

Yang, H., Sheikhi, A., Tg, V.D.V., 2016. Reusable green aerogels from crosslinked hairy nanocrystalline cellulose and modified chitosan for dye removal. Langmuir, 32(45), 11771-11779.

Yang, Y., Deng, Y., Tong, Z., Wang, C., 2014. Renewable Lignin-Based Xerogels with Self-Cleaning Properties and Superhydrophobicity. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2(7), 1729-1733.

Yim, U.H., Kim, M., Ha, S.Y., Ha, S., Kim, S., Shim, W., 2012. Oil spill environmental forensics: the Hebei Spirit oil spill case. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(12), 6431-6437.

Zhou, X., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Men, X., Zhu, X., 2013. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic sponge with selective absorption and collection of oil from water. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(27), 9411-9416.

Zhu, H., Luo, W., Ciesielski, P.N., Fang, Z.Q., Zhu, J.Y., Henriksson.G., Himmel.M.E., Hu.L.B., 2016. Wood-eerived materials for green electronics, biological devices, and energy applications. Chemical Reviews, 116(16), 9305-9374.

Zhu, H., Qiu, S., Jiang, W., Wu, D., Zhang, C., 2011. Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(10), 4527-4531.

Zhuo, X., Liu, C., Pan, R., Dong, X.Y., Li, Y.F., 2017. Nanocellulose mechanically isolated from Amorpha fruticosa Linn. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(5), 4414-4420.

Zhuo, X., Wei, J., Xu, J., Pan, R., Zhang, G., Guo, Y.L., Dong, X.Y., Long, L., Li, Y.F., 2017. Nanocellulose isolation from Amorpha fruticose by an enzyme-assisted pretreatment. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 2(1), 34-39.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Yong-Feng Li

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.